First Aid Guidance

The first step for any medical emergency is to call 911.
For any injury or urgent medical condition, complete a rapid victim assessment. Do not move the victim.
CARDIAC ARREST:
A cardiac arrest happens when someone’s heart stops suddenly. If a person is unresponsive, and they are not breathing normally, they could be in cardiac arrest, and you need to act quickly.
  • Call 911 for emergency help and start CPR, using a defibrillator if Defibrillators are available in several locations throughout campus.
  • Call out for help and ask someone to bring an AED, but do not leave the victim to retrieve a defibrillator.
  • If you are untrained in CPR, keep your phone on speaker to talk with the 911 operator, and start hands-only CPR.
     Hands-only CPR
  • Shake the person and ask, “Are you okay?” If there is no response and no signs of life, start hands-only CPR.
  • Kneel beside the person.
  • Place the heel of the hand in the middle of the chest, between the breasts.
  • Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first hand and interlace the fingers.
  • Position your body so your shoulders are directly over your hands, and keep your arms straight.
  • Push hard and fast in the center of the chest about 100 times per minute. Count to the beat of a song that has 100 to 120 beats per minute, such as “Staying Alive” by the Bee Gees, “Crazy in Love” by Beyonceé, or “Work It” by Missy Elliott.
  • Keep pushing until there are obvious signs of life, like breathing and movement, or someone else arrives to take over CPR, or you are too exhausted to continue.
PLEASE NOTE: There are Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) in several of the buildings on campus. An AED is a medical device designed to be used by trained employees or the general public to respond to apparent cases  of cardiac arrest. The most current list of locations can be found on the Facilities, Administration, and Planning webpage in the Campus AED Locations folder: https://tinyurl.com/vqp8zlt
CONSCIOUS VICTIM:
  • Ask them what injuries or difficulties they are experiencing.
  • Check and provide first aid for these complaints as well as other observed conditions.
UNCONSCIOUS OR INCOHERENT VICTIM:
  • Check from head to toe for signs of injury or illness.
  • Provide first aid or CPR as condition indicates.
EXTERNAL BLEEDING:
  • Apply direct pressure to the wound.
    • Wear medical gloves, if available.
    • Place sterile gauze or a clean cloth over the wound.
  • Elevate injured part higher than the level of the heart to reduce blood flow.
  • If these measures do not slow the flow of blood, apply pressure above the bleeding point.
    • For arms or hand, apply pressure to the brachial artery, the pulsation point on the inner arm above the elbow.
    • For legs and feet, apply pressure to the femoral artery, the pulsation point located on the inner upper thigh at the groin.
SEVERE INTERNAL BLEEDING:
Indicated by increasing bruising and swelling or obvious contusion of the skin; painful, tender, rigid, bruised abdomen; vomiting or coughing up blood; stools that are black or contain bright red blood.
  • Monitor airway, breathing and circulation.
  • Keep the victim lying on the left side.
  • Elevate the victim’s legs 8” - 12”.
  • Seek immediate medical attention.
SHOCK:
Severe bleeding can rapidly progress to shock. Other conditions that may lead to shock include loss of fluid, as with excessive sweating or dehydration; circulatory collapse; major trauma; or extreme stress from an extreme emotional event.
  • Symptoms to look for:
    • Altered mental state (extreme anxiety and restlessness)
    • Pale, cold, clammy skin, dusky (blue color) lips and nailbeds
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Rapid breathing and rapid pulse
    • Unresponsive
  • What to do:
    • Lay the victim on their back.
    • Raise the victim’s legs 8” - 12”.
    • Put blankets or coats over and under victim to prevent loss of body heat.
BURNS:
  • Remove all affected clothing.
  • For first- and second-degree burns, immerse in cold water, or cover with cool wet gauze or clean cloths.
  • For third-degree burns (involves fat and muscle), cover with sterile non-stick dressing; monitor airway, breathing, and circulation; observe for signs of shock, and seek immediate medical attention.
CHOKING:
  • If someone is choking but coughing or able to talk, keep eyes on the person, but do not attempt the Heimlich maneuver or other intervention. Ask the person if they need help.
  • If the person is unable to breathe or talk, appears panicked or distressed due to obstruction, or they give the universal sign of hands wrapped around the neck, perform the Heimlich maneuver.
FRACTURE (Obvious or suspected broken bone):
  • Keep the victim still, and immobilize the injury until medical help arrives.
HEART ATTACK:
Call 911 for transport or get the victim to the nearest emergency room.
  • Assist the victim to the least painful position, usually sitting with the legs up, knees bent.
  • Loosen clothing from around the neck and midriff.
  • If available, have the victim chew an aspirin.
  • Ask the victim if they have a history of heart disease and a prescription for nitroglycerine. If yes, administer a nitroglycerine tablet under the tongue. Administer nitroglycerine ONLY if it is prescribed for the victim.
  • Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation, and, if the victim becomes unconscious, start CPR.
  • If the victim is unconscious and an AED is available, follow the AED instructions.
POISONING OR OVERDOSE:
  • Determine what substance is involved and how it was taken,
  • Place the victim on their left side.
  • Call the poison control hotline at 1-800-222-1222.
  • Do not induce vomiting unless instructed to do so by poison control or a health professional.
  • Stay with the victim until medical help arrives.
SEIZURES:
Most seizures stop by themselves, but during a seizure, the person can be hurt or injured. When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the person from injury.
  • Try to prevent a fall.
  • Lay the person on the ground in a safe area.
  • Clear the area of furniture or other sharp objects.
  • Cushion the person’s head.
  • Loosen tight clothing, especially around the neck.
  • Turn the person on their left side.
  • Look for a medical ID bracelet or necklace with seizure instructions.
  • Stay with the person until they recover, or medical help arrives.

For emergencies dial (911) or (4357) on any campus phone.